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What is Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) style of referencing?

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) referencing style is a commonly used format by writers and editors in technical fields.

The Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers or the IEEE is a professional organization that supports branches of engineering, computer science, and information technology. IEEE publishes many magazines, conference proceedings, and journals and also develops standards for different types of industries. The IEEE style is based on the Chicago Manual of Style and is a widely accepted format for writing research papers in technical fields, esp. computer science.

In addition to the in-text citations styles, the IEEE has also created an editorial style manual that provides general guidelines to be followed by authors and editors before submitting their work to IEEE publications which includes journals, transactions, letters, etc. For any guidance needed other than the points mentioned in this editorial style manual, IEEE advises to consult the Chicago Manual of Style. Few examples of IEEE editorial style manual include guidelines regarding list of preferred spellings and hyphenated words, use of en and em dashes in page numbers, reference numbers, capitalization, etc.

How to cite in IEEE style

To write in-text citations in IEEE style, the citations should be numbered and included in square brackets. They should be sequential and not superscripted. Also, do not include any additional bibliographical information such as the author's name, page numbers, or the publication date in the in-text citation. The bibliographical information should appear only in the list of references at the end of the document against the respective citation number. The reference list should be arranged in the numerical order and not alphabetically.

For citing, insert the citation number at the relevant location in the text before any punctuation. There should be a single space before the opening square bracket while writing the citation. If a citation appears multiple times in the text, use the same citation number from the first instance. For citing multiple references in a text, each reference number should be enclosed within square brackets and separated by comma or a dash. Different style formats are used depending on the types of reference sources. For example, the title of an article is to be enclosed in quotation marks whereas titles of books and journals should appear in italics. The author’s name should appear as first initial followed by last name.

If the reference is from a specific page then use a colon; no space between the year, colon and page number.

In case there are three or more authors use ‘et al’ at the end of the last name of the author.

Unless it is a quote, place the citation near the author’s name as much as possible, else place after the quotes. All citations in the text should have a corresponding full reference in the references section at the end of the document. The references list should be arranged in the alphabetical order of author names.

In the References list, each reference entry should begin with the citation number in square brackets followed by a space and then the full bibliographical information for that citation. The citations should be left-aligned in the page and follow hanging indentation.

AAA referencing examples

In-text citation examples:

Recent studies confirm that quality control also includes actions of those involved in ensuring quality [1].

Recent studies [1] confirm that quality control also includes actions of those involved in ensuring quality.

Recent studies confirm that quality control also includes actions of those involved in ensuring quality [1], [2] - [3].

Recent studies confirm that quality control also includes actions of those involved in ensuring quality [4] - [6].

The design that was patented during the 90s [7] …

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