It’s that familiar, time-tested assignment again: the research paper. You already know that it’s critical to include a variety of sources as evidence to back up your argument or ideas. Sources of information like books, websites, and academic journals are easy to access and can help you locate pertinent information to your topic. But how do you include information from sources that provide first-hand evidence, such as maps, letters, etc.?
These types of sources are called “primary” sources, and citing them can be a bit more challenging than citing those that are “secondary” (sources that interpret primary sources or information). However, primary sources are strong resources to use.
First, primary sources help you relate directly to the content. Instead of reading an “outsider’s” analysis of a topic or event, you can explore it for yourself through primary sources. Second, primary sources allow you to create your own opinions and analysis of a topic, without the bias of a secondary analyzer. Finally, there is less chance of miscommunication or misinformation with primary sources.
Now that you know the value of primary sources, here are some tips on how to properly include them in your next bibliography or MLA works cited.
No matter what you are citing, the key thing to remember is that the overall objective is to lead your readers directly to the sources you have consulted. Here are some of the pieces of information you should include from your primary source in order to accomplish this goal:
- Author or creator’s name
- Title of the source or a description
- Date the source was written/created
- Publication information, such as the database you accessed it from
- Collection name, if there is one
- Box and folder, if the source was housed in a place that uses such a system
- Repository/archive that holds the source
Here is an example for citing a letter as a primary source in MLA format:
Benton, Alice. Letter to Charles Friend. 24 Jan 1789. Charles Friend Collection, State University Library, New York, MS 511, box 15, folder 9.
And here is how you would cite the same letter in APA format:
Benton, A. (1789, October 24). Letter to Charles Friend. Charles Friend Collection (MS 511, Box 15, Folder 9). State University Archives, New York.
If you are unsure about how to cite a primary source for your paper, talk to your instructor or consult the manual for your citation style. BibMe.org also has helpful citation forms for many types of primary sources like interviews, photography, maps, federal bills, and more!
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