APA Interview Citation
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How to Reference an Interview in APA
Use the following template to cite an interview using the APA citation format. We also provide style guides for the MLA and Chicago styles. To have your bibliography or works cited list automatically made for you, check out our free APA citation maker.
Once you’re finished with your citations, we can also help you with creating an APA title page.
Important Note on Personal Interviews:
- A personal interview should NOT be included in a reference list in APA. They are not considered recoverable data (they cannot be found by a researcher). You should reference personal interviews as in-text citations instead.
- Example: (J. Doe, personal communication, December 12, 2004)
That being said, there is a general structure if you want to cite a personal interview as part of your APA works cited list:
Author, A. (Year, Month Date). Interview type.
APA format example:
Marino, B. (2014, October 18). Personal Interview.
For more information on how to cite in APA, check out the APA Style Guide.
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- How do I format an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA style?
As per Sections 8.7 and 8.9 of the APA Publication Manual, 7th edition, personal interviews are treated as personal communication. Since personal communication cannot be recovered by readers, APA recommends using personal communication only when a recoverable source of communication is not available.
And since personal communications cannot be recovered by readers, they are also not included in the reference list. Instead, the in-text citation for personal communication, including personal interviews, is much more detailed than other APA in-text citations.
When citing a personal interview in an in-text citation, include the first initial and surname of the person interviewed, “personal communication,” and the full date of the interview, rather than just the year.
The following templates and examples show how to cite a personal interview in an in-text citation in APA style.
Narrative citation: Interviewee’s First Initial Surname (personal communication, Month Day Year)
Parenthetical citation: (Interviewee’s First Initial Surname, personal communication, Month Day Year)
Narrative citation: A.J. Forrester (personal communication, May 9, 2014)
Parenthetical citation: (A.J. Forrester, personal communication, May 9, 2014)
- How do I format a reference list entry for a personal interview in APA style?
Personal interviews should be treated the same way as personal communications, since neither can be recovered by readers. Since these sources cannot be retrieved, there is no need to provide an entry for them in the reference list. A personal interview should just have an in-text citation and NOT an accompanying reference list entry.